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CJ 2255 Methods of Criminal Justice Inquiry; CJ 3170 Criminal Justice Research Methods

Class guide for CJ2255 & CJ 3170

APA Citation Style, 7th Edition

Text Citations
For most works, appropriate credit takes the form of an author-date citation (p. 255). In this system, each work used in a paper has two parts: an in-text citation and a corresponding reference list entry (p. 261).

One author: In an in-text citation, provide the surname(s) of the author(s) or the name(s) of the group author(s) (p. 262). Ex: (Taylor, 2004)
No author: For works with an unknown author, include the title and year of publication in the in-text citation (p. 264) Ex:  (“Quest for Redemption,” 2007) 
Multiple authors:

2 authors: List both authors when you cite the work (p. 265). Ex: (Wagner & Clarke, 1999)
3 to or more authors: Include the name of only the first author plus 'et al.' in every citation, including the first citation (p. 265). Ex: (Kern et al., 2003)

As an alternative to parenthetical citations, you can cite the source in your narrative, which allows you to incorporate the authors more closely into your discussion:

                               Ex: Taylor (1999) had a new theory that is important because it . . .

                                Ex. The reason that Wagner & Clark introduced their research in 1999 was that . . .

APA requires that the reference list be on a new page after the text, double-spaced and that entries have a hanging indent (p. 303). 

eBook (p. 320): 

Author, A. A. (Year). Title: Subtitle. Publisher Name. DOI or URL 


Christian, B., & Griffiths, T. (2016). Algorithms to live by: The computer science of human decisions. Henry Holt and Co.

Web page (p. 350): 

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Site Name. https://xxxxxx

Ex: ​

Avramova, N. (2019). The secret to a long, happy, healthy life? Think age-positive. CNN.


Journal article with a DOI (p. 316): 

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of PeriodicalVolume number(Issue number), Page numbers. 


McCauley, S. M., & Christiansen, M. H. (2019). Language learning as language use: A cross-linguistic model of child language development. Psychological Review126(1),1-51.

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Finding Articles and Creating Citations - Video Tutorial


  • Search articles in Criminal Justice Abstracts 2:45
  • Add Linked Full Text filter 4:08
  • Article's information 4:36
  • Checking if journal is scholarly/peer-reviewed 5:37
  • Adding Scholarly peer-reviewed filter 6:21
  • Saving, printing, and emailing the article 7:11
  • APA Citing the article 8:47
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  • Boolean operator quotation marks 11:25
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  • Brief intro to National Criminal Justice Abstracts and Westlaw 15:45
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APA Legal Citation

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