References are cited in text with an author-date citation system, while each item referenced in text must appear in the reference list (174).
One author: You are required to include the authors’ last names and year of publication, and encouraged to provide a page number where the information that is cited may be found. Ex: (Taylor & Green, 2004, p. 56)
No author: Abbreviate title. Ex: (“Quest for Redemption,” 2007)
2 authors: List both authors when you cite the work (175). Ex: (Wagner & Clarke, 1999)
3 to 5 authors: List all authors the first time you cite the work (175). Ex: (Kern, Cornwell, Jones, Berry, & Howard, 2003) In subsequent citations, list the first author followed by et al. Ex: (Kern et al., 2003)
6 or more authors: List the first author followed by et al. each time you cite the work (175). Ex: (Williams et al., 2007)
APA requires that the reference list be double-spaced and that entries have a hanging indent (180).
Author, A. A. (Year). Title: Subtitle. Location: Publisher.
Berk, R. (1981). Water shortage: Lessons in conservation from the great California drought, 1976-1977. Cambridge, MA: Abt Books.
Web page (205):
Author, A. A. (Year). Title: Subtitle. Retrieved from URL
California Department of Fish and Game (2017). Coho Salmon. Retrieved from https://www.wildlife .ca.gov/Conservation/Fishes/Coho-Salmon
Journal article from an online database with DOI (198):
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume number(Issue number), Page numbers. doi:
Hladik, M. L., Domaglski, J. L., & Kuivila, K. M. (2009). Concentrations and loads of suspended sediment-associated pesticides in the San Joaquin River, California and tributaries during storm events. Science of the Total Environment, 408(2),356-364. doi:/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.09.040
The general rule on the use of numbers is to use numerals to express numbers 10 and above and words to express numbers below 10 (111).
Use numbers expressed in numerals when (111-112):
Use numbers expressed in words when (112):
Combine numerals and words to express numbers when (112-113):
When conveying back-to-back modifiers. Ex: ten 7-point scales
When readability may suffer, spell out both numbers. Ex: first two items
Ordinal numbers (113):
Treat ordinal numbers as you would cardinal numbers (113). Ex: the fourth graders; four grades
Commas in numbers (114):
Use commas between groups of three digits in most figures of 1,000 or more (114).
Exception: page numbers page 1029
Plurals in numbers (114):
To form the plurals of numbers, add s or es along, without an apostrophe (114).
Ex: 10s and 20s; fours and sixes
Citation help using Credo Information Literacy Core!
Location: Library 222, 2nd Floor
Phone: (209) 667-3642
Many library databases provide citations to items displayed on the screen formatted for an APA style References list.
Note: These preformatted citations are not always 100% accurate. Please especially the database citation versus APA style guidelines (especially the authors, date, and titles) for errors.
The OneSearch Citation button (usually found at the top of each OneSearch record) will provide a citation for the book or article displayed on the screen. Be sure to choose APA style and you will be able to copy and paste the item into an APA References list.
The EBSCO Cite button (usually found on the right side of a record in EBSCOHost) will provide a citation for the article or book displayed on the screen. Be sure to choose APA 7th edition and you will be able to copy and paste the item into an APA References list.
The ProQuest Cite button (usually found on the top right side of a record in ProQuest) will provide a citation for the article or book displayed on the screen. Be sure to choose APA 7th edition and you will be able to copy and paste the item into an APA References list.
Technically, APA style citations should not include the URL at the end linking to ProQuest. (The only links that should be included are those to DOI addresses, starting with https://doi.org.) Check with your instructor to see if ProQuest links are acceptable for course assignments. (They should not be included in thesis or project References.)