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APA Citation Style, 7th Edition

Text Citations
For most works, appropriate credit takes the form of an author-date citation (p. 255). In this system, each work used in a paper has two parts: an in-text citation and a corresponding reference list entry (p. 261).

One author: In an in-text citation, provide the surname(s) of the author(s) or the name(s) of the group author(s) (p. 262). Ex: (Taylor & Green, 2004)
No author: For works with an unknown author, include the title and year of publication in the in-text citation (p. 264) Ex:  (“Quest for Redemption,” 2007) 
Multiple authors:

2 authors: List both authors when you cite the work (p. 265). Ex: (Wagner & Clarke, 1999)
3 to or more authors: Include the name of only the first author plus 'et al.' in every citation, including the first citation (p. 265). Ex: (Kern et al., 2003)

References
APA requires that the reference list be on a new page after the text, double-spaced and that entries have a hanging indent (p. 303). 

eBook (p. 320): 

Author, A. A. (Year). Title: Subtitle. Publisher Name. DOI or URL 

Ex: 

Christian, B., & Griffiths, T. (2016). Algorithms to live by: The computer science of human decisions. Henry Holt and Co. http://bit.ly/2G0BpbI

Web page (p. 350): 

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Site Name. https://xxxxxx

Ex: ​

Avramova, N. (2019). The secret to a long, happy, healthy life? Think age-positive. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/01/03/health/respect-toward-elderly-leads-to-long-life-intl/index.html

 

Journal article with a DOI (p. 316): 

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of PeriodicalVolume number(Issue number), Page numbers. https://doi.org/xxxx 

Ex: 

McCauley, S. M., & Christiansen, M. H. (2019). Language learning as language use: A cross-linguistic model of child language development. Psychological Review126(1),1-51. https://doi.org/10.1037/rev0000126

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If you need any assistance please text, chat, call, or visit us in-person or visit our Credo Information Literacy Core guide.

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APA Citation Style, 6th Edition

Text Citations
References are cited in text with an author-date citation system, while each item referenced in text must appear in the reference list (174).

One author: You are required to include the authors’ last names and year of publication, and encouraged to provide a page number where the information that is cited may be found. Ex: (Taylor & Green, 2004, p. 56)
No author: Abbreviate title. Ex:  (“Quest for Redemption,” 2007) 
Multiple authors:

2 authors: List both authors when you cite the work (175). Ex: (Wagner & Clarke, 1999)
3 to 5 authors: List all authors the first time you cite the work (175). Ex: (Kern, Cornwell, Jones, Berry, & Howard, 2003) In subsequent citations, list the first author followed by et al. Ex: (Kern et al., 2003)
6 or more authors: List the first author followed by et al. each time you cite the work (175). Ex: (Williams et al., 2007)

References
APA requires that the reference list be double-spaced and that entries have a hanging indent (180). 

Book (202): 

Author, A. A. (Year). Title: Subtitle. Location: Publisher. 

Ex: 

Berk, R. (1981). Water shortage: Lessons in conservation from the great California drought, 1976-1977. Cambridge, MA: Abt Books.

 

Web page (205): 

Author, A. A. (Year). Title: Subtitle. Retrieved from URL

Ex: ​

California Department of Fish and Game (2017). Coho Salmon. Retrieved from https://www.wildlife .ca.gov/Conservation/Fishes/Coho-Salmon

 

Journal article from an online database with DOI (198): 

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of PeriodicalVolume number(Issue number), Page numbers. doi: 

Ex: 

Hladik, M. L., Domaglski, J. L., & Kuivila, K. M. (2009). Concentrations and loads of suspended sediment-associated pesticides in the San Joaquin River, California and tributaries during storm events. Science of the Total Environment408(2),356-364. doi:/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.09.040

Numbers
The general rule on the use of numbers is to use numerals to express numbers 10 and above and words to express numbers below 10 (111).

Use numbers expressed in numerals when (111-112): 

  • Numbers are 10 and above.
  • Numbers are in the abstract of a paper.
  • Numbers that immediately precede a unit of measurement. Ex: a 5-mg dose
  • Numbers that represent statistical or mathematical functions, decimal quantities, percentages, ratios, and percentiles. Ex: 3 times as many [proportion]
  • Numbers that represent time, dates, ages, scores and points on a scale, exact sums of money, and numerals as numerals. Ex: 2-year-olds
  • Numbers that denote a specific place in a numbered series, parts of books and tables, and each number in a list of four or more numbers. Ex: Grade 8

Use numbers expressed in words when (112): 

  • Any number that begins a sentence, title, or text heading.
  • Common fractions.
  • Universally accepted usage.

Combine numerals and words to express numbers when (112-113):

When conveying back-to-back modifiers. Ex:  ten 7-point scales

When readability may suffer, spell out both numbers. Ex: first two items

Ordinal numbers (113): 

Treat ordinal numbers as you would cardinal numbers (113). Ex: the fourth graders; four grades

Commas in numbers (114):

Use commas between groups of three digits in most figures of 1,000 or more (114).

Exception: page numbers       page 1029

Plurals in numbers (114): 

To form the plurals of numbers, add s or es along, without an apostrophe (114).

Ex: 10s and 20s; fours and sixes

Citation help using Credo Information Literacy Core!

If you need any assistance please text, chat, call, or visit us in-person or visit our Credo Information Literacy Core guide.

Location: The Writing Center is now online
Phone: (209) 667-3642
Email: writingcenter@csustan.edu
 

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