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Business 3100

Resources for Business Writing and Communication

APA Citation Style, 6th Edition

Text Citations
References are cited in text with an author-date citation system, while each item referenced in text must appear in the reference list (174).

One author: You are required to include the authors’ last names and year of publication, and encouraged to provide a page number where the information that is cited may be found. Ex: (Taylor & Green, 2004, p. 56)
No author: Abbreviate title. Ex:  (“Quest for Redemption,” 2007) 
Multiple authors:

2 authors: List both authors when you cite the work (175). Ex: (Wagner & Clarke, 1999)
3 to 5 authors: List all authors the first time you cite the work (175). Ex: (Kern, Cornwell, Jones, Berry, & Howard, 2003) In subsequent citations, list the first author followed by et al. Ex: (Kern et al., 2003)
6 or more authors: List the first author followed by et al. each time you cite the work (175). Ex: (Williams et al., 2007)

References
APA requires that the reference list be double-spaced and that entries have a hanging indent (180). 

Book (202): 

Author, A. A. (Year). Title: Subtitle. Location: Publisher. 

Ex: 

Berk, R. (1981). Water shortage: Lessons in conservation from the great California drought, 1976-1977. Cambridge, MA: Abt Books.

 

Web page (205): 

Author, A. A. (Year). Title: Subtitle. Retrieved from URL

Ex: ​

California Department of Fish and Game (2017). Coho Salmon. Retrieved from https://www.wildlife .ca.gov/Conservation/Fishes/Coho-Salmon

 

Journal article from an online database with DOI (198): 

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of PeriodicalVolume number(Issue number), Page numbers. doi: 

Ex: 

Hladik, M. L., Domaglski, J. L., & Kuivila, K. M. (2009). Concentrations and loads of suspended sediment-associated pesticides in the San Joaquin River, California and tributaries during storm events. Science of the Total Environment408(2),356-364. doi:/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.09.040

Numbers
The general rule on the use of numbers is to use numerals to express numbers 10 and above and words to express numbers below 10 (111).

Use numbers expressed in numerals when (111-112): 

  • Numbers are 10 and above.
  • Numbers are in the abstract of a paper.
  • Numbers that immediately precede a unit of measurement. Ex: a 5-mg dose
  • Numbers that represent statistical or mathematical functions, decimal quantities, percentages, ratios, and percentiles. Ex: 3 times as many [proportion]
  • Numbers that represent time, dates, ages, scores and points on a scale, exact sums of money, and numerals as numerals. Ex: 2-year-olds
  • Numbers that denote a specific place in a numbered series, parts of books and tables, and each number in a list of four or more numbers. Ex: Grade 8

Use numbers expressed in words when (112): 

  • Any number that begins a sentence, title, or text heading.
  • Common fractions.
  • Universally accepted usage.

Combine numerals and words to express numbers when (112-113):

When conveying back-to-back modifiers. Ex:  ten 7-point scales

When readability may suffer, spell out both numbers. Ex: first two items

Ordinal numbers (113): 

Treat ordinal numbers as you would cardinal numbers (113). Ex: the fourth graders; four grades

Commas in numbers (114):

Use commas between groups of three digits in most figures of 1,000 or more (114).

Exception: page numbers       page 1029

Plurals in numbers (114): 

To form the plurals of numbers, add s or es along, without an apostrophe (114).

Ex: 10s and 20s; fours and sixes

Citation help using Credo Information Literacy Core!

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Phone: (209) 667-3642
Email: writingcenter@csustan.edu
 

MLA Citation Style

Text Citations
A typical in-text citation is composed of the author's name and page number (54). 

One author: The citation for a paraphrased idea should be placed as close as possible after the borrowed container, at a natural pause in your sentence, so the flow is not disrupted (57). Ex: (Baron 194)
No author: If the the author is anonymous or an organization, your in-text citation contains the title, in entirety within the text or abbreviated before the page number in parenthesis (56). Ex: (Reading 3).
Multiple authors: 

Two authors: Include both last names in the in-text citation, connected by and (116). Ex: (Dorris and Erdrich 23) 
Three or more authors: The in-text citation begins with the first author's name followed by et al. (116). Ex: (Burdick et al. 42)

Works Cited
Format the Works Cited list so that the second and subsequent lines of each entry are indented half an inch from the left margin (112). 

Book (26): 

Last name, First name. Title of Container. Publisher, Year. 

Ex:

Berk, Richard A. Water Shortage: Lessons in Conservation from the Great California Drought, 1976-1977. Abt Books, 1981.

 

Web page (41): 

Last name, First name. "Title of source." Title of container, Other contributors, Publisher, Year, URL. Date of access.

Ex: ​

California Department of Fish and Game. "Coho Salmon." Fisheries Branch, 2017, https://www.wildlife .ca.gov/Conservation/Fishes/Coho-Salmon. Accessed 20 June 2018.

 

Journal article from an online database with DOI (110): 

Last name, First name. "Title of source." Title of container, volume number, issue number (presented as no.), Year, Page numbers. Database name, URL. 

Ex:

Hladik, et al. "Concentrations and Loads of Suspended Sediment-Associated Pesticides in the San Joaquin River, California and Tributaries during Storm Events." Science of the Total Environment, vol. 408, no. 2, 2009, pp. 356-364. ScienceDirect, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.09.040.

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